Final accounts of company with basic adjustment

Final accounts, also known as financial statements, are a set of accounting reports prepared at the end of an accounting period (usually a fiscal year) to summarize a company’s financial performance and financial position. These accounts include the income statement (also called the profit and loss statement) and the balance sheet. Adjustments may be necessary to ensure that these accounts accurately represent the financial condition and results of the company. Here’s an overview of the final accounts of a company with some basic adjustments:

Income Statement (Profit and Loss Statement):

The income statement summarizes a company’s revenues, expenses, gains, and losses over a specific period. It calculates the net profit or loss for the period.


Components of the Income Statement:

– Revenue: This includes all income generated from the company’s primary operations, such as sales of goods or services.

– Cost of Goods Sold (COGS): This represents the direct costs associated with producing or delivering goods or services.

– Gross Profit: Gross profit is calculated as revenue minus COGS and represents the profit before considering operating expenses.

– Operating Expenses: These include expenses like salaries, rent, utilities, marketing, and administrative costs.

– Operating Income (Operating Profit): It is calculated as gross profit minus operating expenses.

– Other Income and Expenses: This category includes gains and losses from non-operating activities, such as the sale of assets.

– Net Income (Net Profit): Net income is the final result and represents the company’s overall profit or loss for the period.




Common adjustments that may be required for the income statement include:

 – Depreciation: To account for the decrease in the value of assets over time.

– Accruals and Prepayments: To recognize revenue or expenses that were earned or incurred but not yet recorded.

– Provisions for Bad Debts: To account for potential losses from uncollectible accounts.

– Interest and Tax Expenses: To account for interest expenses and income tax expenses.


Balance Sheet:

The balance sheet provides a snapshot of a company’s financial position at a specific date, showing its assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity.


Components of the Balance Sheet:

– Assets: Assets are what the company owns and includes items like cash, accounts receivable, inventory, and property.

– Liabilities: Liabilities represent the company’s obligations, such as loans, accounts payable, and accrued expenses.

– Shareholders’ Equity: This is the difference between assets and liabilities and represents the owners’ interest in the company.



Common adjustments for the balance sheet include:


– Accumulated Depreciation: To reduce the value of assets on the balance sheet due to depreciation.

– Accruals and Prepayments: To recognize assets or liabilities that were not initially recorded.

– Revaluation of Assets: If the company revalues its assets, it may need to adjust their book values.

– Provisions: To account for potential liabilities, such as warranty claims or legal disputes.

– Dividends: To account for any dividends declared but not yet paid.

After making these adjustments, the balance sheet should balance, with total assets equaling total liabilities and shareholders’ equity.

The final accounts, along with the adjustments, provide a clear picture of a company’s financial health and performance, helping stakeholders make informed decisions about the business. These accounts are typically audited to ensure their accuracy and compliance with accounting standards and regulations.